I believe Aime Cesaire is talking about himself here. His journey of going away from his homeland to Paris, then coming back home "to this land whose loam is part of my flesh" (263). Maybe the concept that his 'going away and coming back' allows you to open your eyes and see your homeland in a different light, which makes it a surrealist idea. I imagine it as an eye-opener to go to France and see those different cultural point-of-views, then came back and see them in real life. It shows the importance of having a voice and having knowledge so that you can overcome ignorance.
Lines 261-275 show his feeling of speaking out for the people that have no voice. He believes that "my mouth shall be the mouth of those calamities that have no mouth" (269). Cesaire believes there is an obligation to speak and not to have the "sterile attitude of a spectator" ( 274). Life should be taken seriously. Every life is precious, "for life is not a spectacle" (274). I believe he is pointing out the idea that every life should be held dear and not just let the poor, the wretched, the blacks, and the minorities just sink into oblivion. Every life is important and should have a voice.